Eukaryotic Animal Cell Diagram – Organelles and Function

Eukaryotic Animal Cell Diagram – Organelles and Function

November 9, 2019 5 By Jose Scott


hey it’s Dr. Jory and welcome to a tour of the animal cell this is a typical eukaryotic cell animal cell and we’ll just say it’s a human cell and let’s start with the nucleus we call that the brains of the cell it houses all the genetic information in a human there’s three billion base pairs of DNA inside the nucleus and we have the nucleus in all trillions of our cells except for our red blood cells now you see here the nucleus has inside the chromatin which is the DNA and chromosomes are actually in there in a human there would be 23 pairs. 23 from Mom 23 from Dad you also have the nucleolus right here and that’s where ribosomal RNA is made the nuclear pores you can see right here those are used to bring nucleic acids inside the cell as well as exporting messenger RNA which is made from the DNA the messenger RNA will leave the nuclear pore and link up with one of these ribosomes those are all those little orange dots that you see there the ribosomes are located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum or RER this is where protein synthesis happens whenever you think of ribosome please think of protein synthesis. Protein synthesis doesn’t only occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum it could occur outside in the cytoplasm as you see the cytoplasm is everything from the plasma membrane to the nuclear envelope protein synthesis could even happen right here in this free ribosome something I forgot to mention is the lining of the nucleus which is called the nuclear envelope this consists of a plasma bilayer of phospholipids just like over here we have the plasma membrane which is the outer lining of the cell and that’s a phospholipid bilayer as well you will see as we go through this that phospholipids are actually everywhere so here’s what the phospholipid bilayer looks like you have the hydrophilic heads there polar heads facing the water side and then you have the hydrophobic tails. The hydrophobic tails will always line up against each other because they hate water they have a fear of water i was mentioning the messenger RNA which is made in the nucleus that exits and enters into the rough endoplasmic reticulum where protein synthesis happens what you’re seeing here is a baby protein right there that could likely be your primary structure of a protein and that’s simply just a bunch of amino acids all connected together and as the protein moves outwards kind of like a conveyor belt the protein gets modified it folds more and then it can reach a secondary structure of a protein which would be alpha helix or it could be a beta pleated sheet which is the other type of secondary protein as it continues to move outwards you have even more folding you have actually a transport vehicle this is taking this protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum it just buds off and then it travels over to the Golgi apparatus the golgi apparatus is the post office of the cell shipping packaging modification that is where you will get the final shape of the protein likely a tertiary which is the third structure of a protein or the quaternary such as hemoglobin is an example now once that transport vehicle merges in again phospholipids so the transport vehicle is lined with phospholipids so is the rough endoplasmic reticulum the nuclear envelope golgi apparatus and the secretory vesicle and the plasma membrane you can see it’s all of these phospholipids. What that allows is for them to just merge in wherever they need to go so you can have phospholipids gets substituted in some phospholipids get removed but it’s a continuous endomembrane system we like to also think of this as a conveyor belt for protein synthesis as well as lipid synthesis now lipid synthesis happens in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum or SER smooth endoplasmic reticulum as other functions to it has calcium ion storage in the muscles if you were to open up a liver cell you would see lots of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and that would be the site where detoxification would take place i mentioned the smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids so this is an example of a lipid possibly even a phospholipid so the phospholipid can then go into the golgi apparatus and can also use transport vesicles and secretory vehicles to move around Go Jays Go! hi everyone I got kicked out of my classroom so now i’m in my backyard I might have to compete with cars airplanes, dogs, squirrels, and so on but here we go i’m going to try and resume where we left off last we were talking about the secretory vesicle this is coming from the golgi apparatus carrying with it a protein to be secreted that’s why it’s called a secretor vesicle and in this case what we’re secreting is a protein this whole process is called exocytosis you can see here an example would be insulin that we are secreting outside of the cell to get into the bloodstream something else we still need to cover is the cytoskeleton we have three cytoskeletal elements we have the microtubules those allow for transport across the cell we also have the actin filaments which support the plasma membrane actin filaments are also involved in muscle and we have the intermediate filaments which are medium-sized between the three and those support the nuclear envelope it tells you right in the word there cytoskeleton that helps to support the cell the centrioles are involved in animal cell division they are made up of microtubules and they form the spindle apparatus when the cells split in half we also have the lysosome here which is the garbage and recycling area of the cell and we have the peroxisome which hydrolyzes lipids in other words takes water to break up lipids and it has digestive enzymes in it you’ll find a lot of those in the liver where we metabolize are fats that’s a tour of the eukaryotic cell happy studying as usual subscribe to my channel give me the like button